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Table 3

Supplements with good to strong evidence of achieving benefits to performance when used in specific scenarios

Many dietary supplements claim to enhance performance indirectly—by supporting the athlete’s health, body composition, and their ability to train hard, recovery quickly, adapt optimally, avoid or recover from injury, and tolerate pain or soreness. Illness is a major problem for athletes if it interrupts training or occurs at a critical time, such as during a selection event or a major competition. Susceptibility to illness is increased in situations where athletes are involved in a high volume of training or competition, and either intentionally or unintentionally experience deficits in energy intake (eg, weightloss diets), macronutrient intake (eg, train-low or sleep-low-carbohydrate) and micronutrient status (eg, vitamin D insufficiency in the winter). 19 Athletes might benefit from nutritional supplements to support immunity in these scenarios and at other times when they are either susceptible to infection (eg, during the common cold season and after long-haul travel) or suffering from an infection. Table 4 summarises evidence for some of the commonly promoted ‘immune supportive’ supplements, noting that the most promising candidates to assist in the prevention or treatment of upper respiratory symptoms are vitamin D and probiotics. Vitamin C during periods of heavy exertion and zinc lozenges at the onset of symptoms may be useful, but high doses of single antioxidants, particularly vitamins C and E, may blunt exercise-induced training adaptations. Low Price Fee Shipping For Sale Free Shipping Sneakernews Womens Lanolina Trousers Pennyblack Cheap Recommend Sale Official Cheap 100% Authentic o3HZPu
Probiotic supplementation may reduce the incidence of travellers’ diarrhoea and gastrointestinal infection. Cochrane reviews have noted the low quality of many studies on nutritional supplements that are claimed to support immunity; specifically, small samples, poor controls and unclear procedures for randomisation and blinding were commonplace. 23 24 Clearly, there is a pressing need for randomised controlled trials in high-level athletes with sufficient participant numbers, rigorous controls and procedures, appropriate supplementation regimens, and clinically meaningful measures of immunity.

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Table 4

Nutritional supplements for immune health in athletes: proposed mechanism of action and evidence for efficacy

Supplements that assist an athlete to train harder, recover more quickly and prevent injury, or accelerate return to play when injury does occur can obviously enhance the athlete’s preparation and, indirectly, their competition outcomes. Many products claim to provide benefits of this nature; table 5 summarises the evidence for some of the most popular compounds. Finally, the manipulation of body composition, including gaining lean (muscle) mass and reducing body fat levels, can contribute to performance in many events. This explains the large number of ‘weight gainers’ and ‘fat burners’ in the general and sports supplement market, although many of these are prohibited in sport. Protein is considered to be the premier ingredient in weight gain-promoting supplements, and evidence-based reviews conclude that protein is effective at promoting lean mass gain when combined with resistive exercise. 25 Evidence of efficacy for ‘fat burning’ supplements is far from conclusive, however, and there is a complete absence of evidence for the effectiveness of the vast majority of supplements marketed in this category. Table 6 summarises the evidence for some of the most common ingredients or products of this type. 25

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6.1Creating Interfaces

@ secref [ "createinterface"
#:doc ' (lib "scribblings/reference/reference.scrbl") ]
@ secref [ "createinterface"
#:doc ' (lib "scribblings/reference/reference.scrbl") ]

Classes and Objects in The Racket Guide introduces classes, objects, and interfaces.

Produces an interface. The id s must be mutually distinct.

Each super-interface-expr is evaluated (in order) when the interface expression is evaluated. The result of each super-interface-expr must be an interface value, otherwise the exn:fail:object exception is raised. The interfaces returned by the super-interface-expr s are the new interface’s superinterfaces, which are all extended by the new interface. Any class that implements the new interface also implements all of the superinterfaces.

The result of an interface expression is an interface that includes all of the specified id s, plus all identifiers from the superinterfaces. Duplicate identifier names among the superinterfaces are ignored, but if a superinterface contains one of the id s in the interface expression, the exn:fail:object exception is raised. A given id may be paired with a corresponding contract-expr .

If no super-interface-expr s are provided, then the derivation requirement of the resulting interface is trivial: any class that implements the interface must be derived from object% . Otherwise, the implementation requirement of the resulting interface is the most specific requirement from its superinterfaces. If the superinterfaces specify inconsistent derivation requirements, the exn:fail:object exception is raised.

Browse > / Burien News , Education , Featured Stories , Headlines , Schools / Highline High School Alumni Foundation awards over $67,000 in scholarships

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Front Row, L-R Noel Rodriguez, Tramy Nguyen, Kim Ha, Haylee Beckham, Caitlynn Rahal Middle Row, L-R Valerie Tran, Emmanuel Cruz Soria, Maria Arevalo Martinez, Minh Tu Huynh, Christine Nguyen, Michelle Lopez, Cathy Nguyen, Dennise Lopez Sanchez, Tsion Hailu Back Row L-R Cesar Lopez, Ingrid Perce, Christian Hagler, Anita Chung, Nghi Lam, Erendira Mercado, Precious Gonzalez, Leann Barnes Not present: Daniel Villalon-Tinoco

By Shelley Voie Special for The B-Town Blog

On Sunday evening, June 10, the Highline High School Alumni Foundation awarded over $67,000 in scholarships to 23 graduating seniors of Highline High School. Families, alumni, staff, and honorees celebrated the students’ awards and accomplishments at the Highline ERAC Building.

Foundation President Gary Korsgaard (Class of 1964) opened the evening with Pirate pride about how much the program has grown since 1995, when it awarded just a single $500 scholarship.

Scholarship chair Patti Burgess (Class of 1950) shared a story about the namesake of the first scholarship, “a very precious teacher” named Harry Lemon. Mr. Lemon taught music and biology at HHS and later taught at Camp Waskowitz. While teaching names of trees and plants, he would joke with Waskowitz students, “I know you’ve heard of a fuzzy peach, but you probably haven’t heard of a hairy lemon!” Burgess then introduced the 2018 Harry E. Lemon Scholarship recipient, Ingrid Perce, and continued by highlighting information about each scholarship, its sponsor, and its winner.

New this year is the Tom Sawyer AVID Scholarship, which is named for a former principal. Its recipient, Erendira Mercado, said “AVID has been really helpful. They helped me pay for three SATs and the ACT.” AVID (Advancement Via Individual Determination) is a global nonprofit organization dedicated to closing the achievement gap by preparing all students for college and other postsecondary opportunities. In Highline, AVID is an elective class that students can join in middle and high school.

When asked what they liked about HHS, some students answered the spirit, the people, the diversity, and those “who are trying to change the stigma of going to Highline High School,” explaining that the run-down building doesn’t represent the high quality of the students and teachers in it. More than one student thanked Sydney Williams, HHS College and Career Access Specialist, for her invaluable help with college and scholarship applications.

University of Washington Seattle is the favorite choice of the graduates, with Western Washington University, Gonzaga University, Pomona College, Stanford University, Pacific Lutheran University, Colorado College, and George Fox University rounding out the list.

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» Table of Contents » Leadership and Management » Chapter 13. Orienting Ideas in Leadership » Section 11. Collaborative Leadership » Main Section
Chapter 13
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Chapter 13 Sections

A collaboration among several groups and individuals is often needed to address a complex issue, and collaboration requires collaborative leadership. Collaborative leadership means maintaining a process that includes everyone involved in an issue or organization. A process that depends on collaborative problem solving and decision making. In this section, we will explore collaborative leadership, why it is useful, and how to practice in effectively.

Collaborative leadership is really defined by a process, rather than by what leaders do. It has much in common with both servant leadership and transformational leadership . It starts, according to David Chrislip and Carl Larson, in Collaborative Leadership , from the premise that "...if you bring the appropriate people together in constructive ways with good information, they will create authentic visions and strategies for addressing the shared concerns of the organization or community."

servant leadership transformational leadership

Collaborative leadership can be employed in almost any situation, and indeed is practiced in some businesses with great success, but is seen more often in community coalitions and initiatives, in community-based health and human service organizations, or in alternative education. People often find it particularly useful in situations where "no one is in charge," where there are issues or problems so complex that no one person or entity has either the information or the power to change them. (This does't mean that no one has responsibility , but rather that sharing responsibility for the issue is necessary in order to arrive at a successful resolution of it.)

While it can be practiced in a number of ways, good collaborative leadership is almost always characterized by some specific traits. Among the most important:

There are some differences between collaborative leadership within an organization and collaborative leadership among organizations. In the first case, a leader may have to spend much of her time initially trying to coax people to take leadership roles in certain circumstances, or even to participate in collaborative decision-making. In the second instance, a leader's biggest task may be to keep everyone from trying to lead in different directions all at once.

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